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2000

The Geological Society of America, Southeastern Section 49th Annual Meeting, Charleston, South Carolina, March 23-24, 2000

Chirico, P.G., and Weems, R.E., 2000, Development and applications of a digital surficial geologic map database for Charleston County, South Carolina and vicinity: The Geological Society of America 2000 Abstracts with Programs, v. 32, no. 2, p. A-10.

Christopher, R.A., 2000, Maastrichtian (Upper Cretaceous) palynologic zones and their occurrence in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina: The Geological Society of America 2000 Abstracts with Programs, v. 32, no. 2, p. A-11.

Christopher, R.A., Prowell, D.C., Self-Trail, J.M., Gohn, G.S., and Waters, K.E., 2000, Problems and inconsistencies in correlating the Middendorf Formation (Upper Cretaceous) throughout the Coastal Plain of South Carolina: The Geological Society of America 2000 Abstracts with Programs, v. 32, no. 2, p. A11.

Edwards, L.E., 2000, The Red Lake trough in Georgia and South Carolina: The Geological Society of America 2000 Abstracts with Programs, v. 32, no. 2, p. A-16.

Frederiksen, N.O., 2000, Palynomorph ages and correlation of some Late Cretaceous and Paleocene stratigraphic units in the South Carolina Coastal Plain: The Geological Society of America 2000 Abstracts with Programs, v. 32, no. 2, p. A-18.

Gohn, G.S., 2000, Cretaceous and lower Tertiary geology of the South Carolina Coastal Plain: Sedimentary history and architectural elements: The Geological Society of America 2000 Abstracts with Programs, v. 32, no. 2, p. A-21.

Gohn, G.S., Bybell, L.M., Edwards. L.E., Frederiksen, N.O., Prowell, D.C., and Weems, R.E., 2000, Lower Tertiary allostratigraphy of the South Carolina Coastal Plain: The Geological Society of America 2000 Abstracts with Programs, v. 32, no. 2, p. A-21.

Gohn, G.S., Christopher, R.A., Prowell, D.C., and Self-Trail, J.M., 2000, Cretaceous allostratigraphy of the South Carolina Coastal Plain: The Geological Society of America 2000 Abstracts with Programs, v. 32, no. 2, p. A-21.

Prowell, D.C., Bybell, L.M., Edwards, L.E., Frederiksen, N.O., Gohn, G.S., Self-Trail, J.M., Christopher, R.A., Waters, K.E., Gellici, J.A., 2000, Geologic Map of the Cretaceous and Tertiary formations of the South Carolina Coastal Plain: The Geological Society of America 2000 Abstracts with Programs, v. 32, no. 2, p. A-67.

Prowell, D.C., and Christopher, R.A., 2000, The Tuscaloosa problem: A call for allostratigraphy in the South Carolina Coastal Plain: The Geological Society of America 2000 Abstracts with Programs, v. 32, no. 2, p. A-67.

Prowell, D.C., and Christopher, R.A., 2000, The last Appalachian orogeny: Evidence for Cenozoic tectonism and uplift of mountains in the eastern United States: The Geological Society of America 2000 Abstracts with Programs, v. 32, no. 2, p. A-67.

Self-Trail, J.M., 2000, Mesozoic calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy of the South Carolina Coastal Plain: The Geological Society of America 2000 Abstracts with Programs, v. 32, no. 2, p. A-72.

Self-Trail, J.M., Bardot, L.P., Edwards, L.E., and Bybell, L.M., 2000, Magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic correlation of Santonian through Paleocene sediments from two cores in South Carolina: The Geological Society of America 2000 Abstracts with Programs, v. 32, no. 2, p. A-72.

Weems, R.E., and Chirico, P.G., 2000, Age and distribution of upper Tertiary (Neogene) sediments in the Charleston, SC region: The Geological Society of America 2000 Abstracts with Programs, v. 32, no. 2, p. A-81.


1999

Edwards, L.E., Mancini, E.A., and Harris, W.B., 1999, Alloformations, Synthems, and sequences: The Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, vol. 31, no. 7, p. A-181.

Edwards, L.E., and Weems, R. E., 1999, Subsurface stratigraphy of the Miocene of southeastern Georgia: The Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, vol. 31, no. 3, p. A-14.

Lucas-Clark, Joyce, and Edwards, L.E., 1999, Two dinoflagellate family trees from the old South: American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists, 32nd Annual Meeting.


1998

Edwards, L.E., 1998, Dinocyst biostratigraphy and hydrologic implications
in the South Carolina Coastal Plain: American Association of Stratigraphic
Palynologists, 31st Annual Meeting.


NEW INTERPRETATIONS OF EARLY EOCENE CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSIL EVOLUTION

 

Bybell, L.M., USGS, 926A National Center, Reston, VA 20192
Self-Trail, J.M., USGS, 926A National Center, Reston, VA 20192

For this study, early Eocene calcareous nannofossils were examined from closely spaced samples in numerous cores in the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coastal plains and the Atlantic continental shelf. Even within a small geographic area, the lower Eocene sediment package varies significantly from corehole to corehole in thickness and amount of time preserved. Therefore, it is recommended that global evolutionary conclusions should never be based on a geographically limited study area because erosion that results from marine transgressions and regressions can cause numerous, previously unrecognized, small unconformities. The duration of these hiatuses can vary significantly even within a restricted geographic area.

Species of the biostratigraphically important genus Rhomboaster, which are used to define standard calcareous nannofossil zones, were examined with both the light and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). In the past, accurate identification of individual species has been difficult (1) due to subtle morphologic variations within and between species, (2) because of the lack of detail and depth of field obtainable with a light microscope as opposed to a SEM, and (3) because individual specimens appear significantly different when viewed from various angles. The SEM, with its high resolution, greater depth of field, and ability to easily rotate and tilt specimens, was essential in solving these types of morphologic problems.

Using recently documented biostratigraphic ranges of several calcareous nannofossil species as a means of piecing together the various sections in the study area, it was possible to better understand and interpret the evolution of the genus Rhomboaster . This study has resulted in several taxonomic changes in this genus (i.e., recognition of two new species and combination of four other species), and has served as a model for delineating lineages within this group.

Sixth North American Paleontological Convention, June 9-12, 1996
Washington, D.C.


DISCUSSION OF THE CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSIL ZONE NP 9/NP 10 BOUNDARY

 

Bybell, L.M., and Self-Trail, J.M., U.S. Geological Survey, 926A National Center, Reston, VA 20192

No abstract.

Geological Society of America Penrose Conference on "Paleocene/Eocene Boundary Events in Time and Space", April 25-28, 1997, Albuquerque, NM


QUESTIONS REGARDING THE STRATIGRAPHIC RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CAPE FEAR AND MIDDENDORF FORMATIONS

 

Christopher, R.A., Department of Geological Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-1908, Prowell, D.C., U.S. Geological Survey, Peachtree Business Center, 3039 Amwiler Road, Atlanta, GA 30360-2824, and Gohn, G.S., U.S. Geological Survey, 926A National Center, Reston, VA 20192

The Cape Fear and Middendorf Formations comprise the basal units of the updip portion of the Carolina Coastal Plain. Both units have been interpreted as occurring throughout the South Carolina Coastal Plain, with the unconsolidated sands of the Middendorf overlying the indurated clayey sands of the Cape Fear. However, physical and paleontologic data indicate that the relationship between these units is not so straight-forward, nor is the Middendorf as geographically widespread as has been suggested traditionally. Paleontologic investigations at or near the type localities of these formations reveal that both units can be assigned to the same biostratigraphic zone (pollen zone V of late Coniacian to Santonian age). Although samples examined from the Cape Fear Formation throughout South Carolina confirm a zone V age for this formation, units mapped as the Middendorf Formation are of different ages in different places. In addition, units mapped as Middendorf are present in the Carolinas only on interfluves; outcrops along all of the major rivers between the Neuse in North Carolina and the Pee Dee in South Carolina consist of laminated, fossiliferous, organic-rich clays of the basal Black Creek Group overlying the indurated clayey sands of the Cape Fear Formation. These observations are supported by data obtained from several subsurface sections, and in the vicinity of the Savannah River Site, the unit mapped as the Middendorf Formation is biostratigraphically equivalent to these basal Black Creek clays. These observations suggest that considerable stratigraphic, paleontologic, and sedimentologic work is required before a complete understanding of the true relationship between the Cape Fear and Middendorf Formations can be attained

Clemson University Hydrogeology Symposium, April 11, 1997,
Clemson University


MYSTERIES SOLVED IN THE STRATIGRAPHY OF THE UPDIP COASTAL PLAIN OF GEORGIA

 

Edwards, L.E., Frederiksen, N.O., Bybell, L.M., Gohn, G.S., Self-Trail, J.M., U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA 20192, Gibson, T.G., Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20560, Bukry, David, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UCSD, La Jolla, CA 92093-0231, and Fleming, R.F., Littleton, CO

Five cores in Burke and Screven Counties in Georgia form the basis for a multi-faceted paleontological study of Cretaceous and Tertiary Coastal Plain sediments. The recurrence of similar lithofacies and the highly selective removal of sediments by later erosion make the biostratigraphy of this area so intriguing.

The Cape Fear Formation, where studied, is of probable Coniacian age and is nonmarine. At least two different ages may be represented in the Middendorf Formation, one correlative to the type Middendorf and one correlative to the Shepherd Grove Formation of South Carolina. The Black Creek Group is nonmarine in its lower and upper parts, and in all but the most updip core, includes sediment in its middle part that represents a late Campanian transgression. In the Millhaven core, the upper part of the Black Creek is Maastrichtian. The Steel Creek Formation contains long-ranging Cretaceous pollen taxa. It overlies sediments dated as Maastrichtian in the Millhaven core and it therefore is of Maastrichtian age. The placement of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in all cores is poorly constrained.

The Ellenton Formation contains sediments of three different ages: a thin early Paleocene (Danian) section, relatively thick early late Paleocene (Selandian) sediments, and a thin middle late Paleocene (Thanetian) section (in the Millhaven core only). The oldest material contains a significant component of planktonic foraminifers and thus represents deeper water deposition than the remainder of the Ellenton. The Paleocene Snapp Formation is present in varying thicknesses in four of the five cores. It is conspicuously absent in the Thompson Oak core, and its upper kaolinitic part is not present in the McBean core. The Congaree Formation as recognized here is of early and middle Eocene age. The oldest Congaree is present only in the Thompson Oak and possibly the Girard cores. The youngest Congaree is recognized only in the Millhaven core. The Santee Formation is of late middle Eocene age. It contains calcareous fossils even in the most updip cores. Paleo-water depths within the Santee, as inferred from foraminifers, deepen basinward. Sediments of the Barnwell Group are poorly fossiliferous and are late Eocene to questionably early Oligocene age.

Clemson University Hydrogeology Symposium, April 11, 1997,
Clemson University


BIOSTRATIGRAPHY, PALEOECOLOGY, BIOGEOGRAPHY, AND GRAPHIC CORRELATION

 

Edwards, L. E., U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA

Interpreting the stratigraphic record is complicated by the fact that not all potentially correlatable horizons are time-equivalent. We use the horizons indicated by the lowest and highest stratigraphic occurrences of taxa (known as FADs and LADs) to correlate, although we know that the lowest or highest occurrence may be due to an ecological change rather than the actual evolution and extinction event.

Graphic correlation (Shaw's method), introduced over three decades ago, can be used to separate biostratigraphically significant FADs and LADs from those with ecological (or other) significance. The biostratigraphically significant events are then used for temporal analysis, while ecologically significant events are excluded from biostratigraphic consideration. However, the patterns these ecologically significant events display can and should be used to interpret paleoecology, biogeography, and evolutionary history.

Graphic correlation should not be restricted to a single fossil group or even to biostratigraphic events in general. Changes in lithology, in patterns of species dominance, in electric or magnetic signals, or in other physical, biological, or chemical properties may or may not have temporal significance and should be included in the analysis. Horizons of change that pass the test of synchroneity using graphic correlation add to the precision of our temporal correlation. Horizons that fail the test of synchroneity have no value in correlation but should be incorporated into the final analysis because their patterns of occurrence in time and space add to the final picture.

Dinocyst FADs and LADs in Florida subsurface sections show important patterns in the Miocene. Graphic correlation reveals events that provide precise biostratigraphic correlation. It also reveals diachronous events that suggest the timing and location of the evolution of new taxa and events that show climatically influenced patterns of immigration.

The First SEPM Congress on Sedimentary Geology, Congress Program and Abstracts, v. 1, p. 51. 1995


LATE PALEOCENE AND EARLIEST EOCENE ANGIOSPERM POLLEN DISTRIBUTIONS IN SOUTHEASTERN NORTH AMERICA: BIOLOGICAL AND PALEOCLIMATIC IMPLICATIONS

 

Frederiksen, N.O., U.S. Geological Survey, 926A National Center, Reston, VA 20192

Thirty-one new samples from the eastern Gulf Coast, mainly from Mississippi, have been examined for angiosperm pollen content. Samples from east-central Mississippi were especially valuable because in this updip area the Paleocene- Eocene (P-E) boundary disconformity represents only a small hiatus; thus, the resolution of taxon diversity changes and turnover rates near the boundary is much better than in Alabama where most of the eastern Gulf Coast upper Paleocene and lower Eocene stratigraphic units have their type localities.

At least six Eocene indicator taxa are now known to range down to within 0.5 m above the P-E boundary. Migrations from both north and south had a great effect on the North American flora not only in the early Eocene, as previously believed, but also during the late Paleocene. It now appears that distinct warming of the terrestrial climate began earlier in the late Paleocene than previously known, at least on the Gulf Coast, and that plant migration northward from the Tethys Seaway preceded the main pulse of migration from Europe over the Greenland land bridge. The evidence is as follows: Eight pollen taxa generally thought of as being Eocene are now known from the upper Paleocene of Mississippi and Alabama. Three of them ( Longapertites , Proxapertites , and Psilodiporites iszkaszentgyorgyi ), mainly monocots, had first appearances probably no later than about 56-57 Ma, having migrated to the Gulf Coast from the Caribbean region. The other "Eocene" taxa in the upper Paleocene, mainly produced by dicot Juglandaceae (walnut family), had first appearances at about 55.2-55.3 Ma (the P-E boundary is taken as 55 Ma), most of them having migrated to eastern North America from Europe over the Greenland land bridge, although a few probably evolved in eastern North America.

The many last appearances of pollen taxa immediately below the P-E boundary led to a sudden diversity drop evidently within a few hundred kyr of the end of the Paleocene. Thus, the warming event presumably responsible for the strong pulse of first and last appearances was apparently very intense during the latest Paleocene, or else the cumulative effect of late Paleocene warming and arrival of plant migrants led to a sudden partial ecosystem collapse in the latest Paleocene.

Sixth North American Paleontological Convention, June 9-12, 1996
Washington, D.C.


UPPER PALEOCENE POLLEN BIOSTRATIGRAPHY AND CORRELATIONS IN EASTERN NORTH AMERICA

 

Frederiksen, N.O., U.S. Geological Survey, 926A National Center, Reston, VA 20192

The upper Paleocene of the eastern United States is divided into three new pollen zones, the Carya , Sparganiaceaepollenites , and Platycarya platycaryoides Interval Zones. Thus, the entire Paleocene of the region includes six pollen zones. However, graphic correlation provides higher-resolution correlations than zones do. Eight pollen taxa previously thought to be characteristic of the Eocene have now been found to range down into upper Paleocene strata particularly in Mississippi. This means that immigration and evolution of subtropical and tropical taxa played larger roles in the late Paleocene of the eastern Gulf Coast than has been previously known and that the unconformity at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary in eastern Mississippi can be shown to represent a considerably smaller hiatus than in Alabama or Georgia. Graphic correlation of pollen and calcareous nannofossil data from Virginia to the eastern Gulf Coast enables an important Gulf Coast unit, the Gravel Creek Sand Member of the Nanafalia Formation, to be dated more precisely than was previously possible. Correlations between the eastern Gulf Coast and South Carolina demonstrate that most of the upper Paleocene is missing or is present as a very condensed section in a downdip core section in South Carolina.

Species of Juglandaceae, and particularly those having affinities to Tribe Platycaryeae, are stratigraphically important near the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. A new species apparently produced by Tribe Platycaryeae is noteworthy because it has a morphologically extreme form of pseudocolpi.

Ninth International Palynological Congress, Abstracts, 1996
Houston, TX


LATEST PALEOCENE CHANGES IN THE ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAIN, U.S.A.

 

Gibson, T.G., Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20560, and Bybell, L.M., U.S. Geological Survey, 926A National Center, Reston, VA 20192

No abstract.

Geological Society of America Penrose Conference on "Paleocene/Eocene Boundary Events in Time and Space", April 25-28, 1997, Albuquerque, NM


LATE CRETACEOUS BIOSTRATIGRAPHY AND PALEOCEANOGRAPHY OF THE ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAINS, USA

 

Self-Trail, J.M., USGS, 926A National Center, Reston, VA 20192

Subsurface Upper Cretaceous marine sediments from nine coreholes in South Carolina, one corehole in northern North Carolina, one corehole in central Delaware, and four coreholes in southern New Jersey were examined for calcareous nannofossils using the light microscope and the scanning electron microscope. Correlation of lithologic units across state boundaries is possible on the basis of the calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphic data.

Biostratigraphic ages of the lithologic units remain fairly constant from north to south. In New Jersey, ages of marine sediments range from latest Cenomanian (Zone CC 10b) for the Bass River Formation to late Maastrichtian (Zone CC a) for the Navesink Formation. Marine sediments in South Carolina, Delaware, and probably North Carolina range in age from the Santonian (Zone CC 15) to the late Maastrichtian (Zone CC 25). Latest Cenomanian and latest Maastrichtian marine units have not been documented in these three states. Cenomanian marine sediments, which do occur in New Jersey, are rare throughout much of the Atlantic coastal plain. There is a regional unconformity documented in all four states between the top of Zone CC 22 (probable top of the Campanian) and the base of Zone CC 25 (lower to middle Maastrichtian).

Calcareous nannofossils document possible changes in the position of the Gulf Stream current during the Campanian and Maastrichtian. Quadrum trifidum and Quadrum sissinghii are rare in New Jersey, with only one specimen of each species found in each of the four cores examined. This is remarkable when compared to South Carolina, where both species are very abundant. Differences in the abundances of these two species between the more subtropical area (South Carolina) and the more temperate are (New Jersey) reflect the position of the Gulf Stream. During the Late Cretaceous, Quadrum sissinghii and Q. trifidum preferred the warmer waters of the South Atlantic and Gulf Stream to the cooler waters found off New Jersey and Delaware. Nephrolithus frequens , which first appears in the Campanian in high-latitude waters and in the Maastrichtian in more temperate waters, is absent in South Carolina but common in New Jersey. Its appearance or absence also is thought to be related to the position of the warm-water Gulf Stream.

Sixth International Nannoplankton Association Conference, Copenhagen 1995
in Journal of Nannoplankton Research, v. 17, no. 2, p. 83-84.


NANNO NOTES: AN INTERACTIVE DIGITAL IMAGE CATALOG OF CENOZOIC CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSILS

 

Wise, S.W., Tway, Linda, Milman, D.D., Payton, W.C., Pospichal, J.J., Muza, Jay, Maiorano, Patrizia, Concheyro, Andrea, Villa, Giuliana, Perch-Nielsen, Katharina, Bybell, L.M., Self-Trail, J.M., Murphy, W.L., Riedel, W.R., AND Xu, Yan

Nanno Notes is an icon-driven digital image catalog consisting of over 600 illustrated calcareous nannofossil taxa with original descriptions. The present version of the catalog was developed for the Ocean Drilling Program to assist their micropaleontologists at sea where hard-copy literature resources are limited. The program would also be useful for students, teachers, and experienced professionals making or refining taxonomic identifications at the microscope. The program is written for the Windows operating environment and, at this writing, has been delivered to ODP for beta-testing aboard the JOIDES RESOLUTION.

When the program is opened, the first or "main" icon screen presents the investigator with icons for 20 families, closely related family groups and the catch- all "Incertae sedis." Clicking on an icon with the right button of the mouse brings up a short text definition of the group, whereas clicking the left mouse button brings up a second icon screen that displays the genera within the selected group. From this second screen generic definitions can be called up as before with the right button of the mouse; the left button, however, brings up a scroll list of species within the genus. Clicking on a species name in turn brings up a text description and a set of illustrations of the taxon. Illustrations for up to four similar species can also be called up and compared simultaneously on the computer screen.

Sixth International Nannoplankton Association Conference, Copenhagen 1995,
in Journal of Nannoplankton Research, v. 17, no. 2, p. 90.


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Contact: G.S. Gohn, U.S. Geological Survey, 926A National Center, Reston, VA 20192, ggohn@usgs.gov
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Updated: 28 April 2000